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Everett Cooley (ed. On 18 July 1857, U.S. Army Captain Stewart Van Vliet, an assistant quartermaster, and a small escort were ordered to proceed directly from Kansas to Salt Lake City, ahead of the main body of troops.  They first claimed that the migrants were killed by Indians but it was proven otherwise.  He promised to stop the Utah Expedition on his own authority, and on September 14 he returned east through the Mormon fortifications then being built in Echo Canyon (see below). The historian Brigham Madsen notes, "[T]he responsibility for the [Fort Limhi raid] lay mainly with the Bannock. The Democrats believed that American attitudes toward polygamy had the potential of derailing the compromise on slavery. 1, 93-94. It is beautifully laid out and watered at every street. Beginning in 1851, a number of federal officers, some claiming that they feared for their physical safety, left their Utah appointments for the east. Mormon Nazis: New book uncovers LDS support for the Third Reich A startling new book argues that German Mormons in the 1930s were not just … D. Robert Carter This story appeared in The Daily Herald on page C2. Johnston's Army entered a deserted city. . Johnston's Army received order's to leave Camp Floyd. Buchanan's proclamation was also unpopular among the Mormon rank and file. A year's worth of work improving their living conditions had essentially been lost. Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often called Mormon pioneers, began settling in what is now Utah (then part of Alta California in the Centralist Republic of Mexico) in the summer of 1847. She impulsively signed on to “Chat with a Mormon” to "destroy everything those missionaries were 'told' to believe," but ended up sending a Facebook friend request to the missionary she talked to, then casually messaging about his faith. Mitt Romney’s presidential campaign has revived interest in little-known aspects (to non-Mormons, anyway) of Mormon history. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, William G. Hartley, "Dangerous Outpost: Thomas Corless and the Fort Limhi/Salmon River Mission", Dinnick Huntington Diary, August 30 and September 1, 1857, "Utah War Broke Hold Mormons Had on Utah—Centennial: Dark Time in Utah History", "Utah War: U.S. Government Versus Mormon Settlers", "Welchman, Arthur P., Reminiscences and diary, [ca.1854-1917], fd. ", "Joseph Smith's Family—Bashfulness in Public Speaking—The Coming Crisis—Counsel", Length of U.S. participation in major wars, Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Utah_War&oldid=1001696747, Religiously motivated violence in the United States, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2021, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2021, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from January 2021, Articles with incomplete citations from January 2021, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from January 2021, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2014, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-LCCN identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Full amnesty for charges of sedition and treason issued to the citizens of Utah Territory by President. The Mormons usually voted for the same candidates. However, President Abraham Lincoln did not enforce these laws; instead Lincoln gave Brigham Young tacit permission to ignore the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act in exchange for not becoming involved with the American Civil War. They were so successful that, by the time the commanding officer, Albert Sidney Johnston, arrived in November, the army was forced to winter over near the burned-out Fort Bridger under miserable conditions. (Which had been re-named Fort Crittenden.) This already tense situation was further exacerbated by a period of intense religious revival starting in late 1856 dubbed the "Mormon Reformation". In early July, the Mormons from the northern settlements began to return to their homes after it was clear that no more reinforcements were being sent into Utah from either the east or west. Mormon pioneers began leaving the United States for Utah after a series of severe conflicts with neighboring communities in Missouri and Illinois resulted, in 1844, in the death of Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Latter-day Saint movement.. The troops were originally to be led by Gen. William S. Harney. A $2,000 bail bond was posted awaiting the decision of the grand jury.  They believed that only through a state run by church leadership could they maintain their religious freedom. Many of the federal officers were also appalled by the practice of polygamy and the Mormon belief system in general, and would harangue the Mormons for their "lack of morality" in public addresses. After Joseph prayed for guidance, where did he take his followers? In sermons on 16 August, and again one month later, Young publicly urged the emigrant wagon trains to keep away from the Territory. We’ve built up cash reserves and a food supply chain that can feed the Church indefinitely if necessary. Since retirement, I have indulged my love of history by study, research and travel. All he knew was that he liked messing with them. , Meanwhile, George Alonzo Johnson, a merchant who had an established business transporting goods by steamship between the Colorado River Delta and Fort Yuma, was upset that he had not been awarded command of the expedition's original exploratory mission. . 5 July 1857: Brigham Young refers in a sermon to "rumors" that the U.S. is sending 1,500-2,000 troops into the, 13 July 1857: President Buchanan appoints, 18 July 1857: Col. Alexander and his troops begin the journey to Utah, at the same time, Mormons, 23 July 1857: Rockwell and Smoot arrive in. February 1858: Thomas Kane, a friend of the Mormons, arrives in Salt Lake to act as a negotiator between the Mormons and the approaching army. I am feeding 100 men, all hard at work. Mormon Nazis: New book uncovers LDS support for the Third Reich A startling new book argues that German Mormons in the 1930s were not just … The “Utah War" of 1857-1858 certainly qualifies as one. If you want detailed information about the cemetery at Camp Floyd, select this link: 600 head of cattle and Wm Hickmans 2 brothers had been taken prisoners.”, [Henry Ballard is the ancestor of M. Russell Ballard, current member of the Quorum of Twelve Apostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. At the time members were being driven out of many states and heavily persecuted, over 500 men agreed to serve their country as part of the Mormon Battalion.. He was on hand when Thomas L. Kane escorted the new Governor, Alfred Cumming, to Salt Lake City in April. failing to provide an adequate resupply train for the winter. It took charge of the region to assert a national presence. As it was, July was already far into the campaigning season, and the army and their supply train were unprepared for winter in the Rocky Mountains. •Their neighbors were worried that Mormons could take control of state and local politics. What was “Buchanan’s Blunder”? " At the end of June 1858, the Army troops under General Johnston entered the Salt Lake Valley unhindered. Johnston awaited resupply and reinforcement and prepared to attack the Mormon positions after the spring thaw. Very busy dealing out provisions to the public hands. Several thousand more militiamen prepared their families for evacuation and underwent military training.  Few if any shots were fired in these exchanges, and the Army's lack of cavalry left them more or less open to Mormon raids. Ives was instructed to proceed with extreme caution, since treacherous Mormons might already be lurking on the Colorado above Yuma. One consequence of the Utah War was the creation of the famous Pony Express. For the Democrats, attacks on Mormonism had the dual purpose of disentangling polygamy from popular sovereignty, and distracting the nation from the ongoing battles over slavery.. The sight of thirty thousand people moving south was awesome, and the amazed Governor Cumming did all he could to persuade them to return to their homes. The Mormons were forced to flee to Ohio, then Missouri, and back to Illinois, where Smith was murdered in 1844. The Mormons evacuated Salt Lake City and were ready to burn it down rather than let outsiders take their city, but this was avoided. Keep them from sleeping, by night surprises; blockade the road by felling trees or destroying the river fords where you can. The focus on military matters had short attention with Mitt Romney portrayed as a Vietnam draft dodger. Prior to the American Civil War in 1857 it appeared to politicos in Washington that the Mormons in Utah were in disloyal and perhaps rebellious toward the U.S. government. Fortunately, the near isolation of Camp Floyd kept interaction to a minimum, as troops stayed on or near their base. 0 Comments, posted by Curtis @ 10:54 AM To be fair, L’Espérance, then 15, was clueless about most religions. , The Mormons blocked the army's entrance into the Salt Lake Valley, and weakened the U.S. Army by hindering them from receiving provisions.. That’s why What was the chief benefit of Johnston's Army for the settlers in Utah? The War Department was now considering launching a second front in Utah via the Colorado. 1861: Camp Floyd is abandoned at the outset of the Civil War. Van Vliet carried a letter to Young from General Harney ordering Young to make arrangements for the citizens of Utah to accommodate and supply the troops once they arrived. Planning to trade both with the Indians and the westward-bound emigrants, the first fort was composed of two double-log houses about 40 feet long, joined by a pen for horses, and provided a small blacksmith shop. [Magazine] Editor, 1919 Gallows Road, Ste 400, Vienna, VA 2218, Vienna, VA 22182. Most of them had spent a cold winter with substandard rations, indequate clothing, and poor shelter.  The LDS Church in territorial Utah viewed plural marriage as religious doctrine until 1890, when it was removed as an official practice of the Church by Wilford Woodruff.. , Upon hearing of Ives's steamer on the Colorado, Mormons feared that Ives might be bringing an army to Utah from the South. In Buchanan's State of the Union address earlier in the month, he had taken a hard stand against the Mormon rebellion, and had actually asked Congress to enlarge the size of the regular army to deal with the crisis. In 1857–58, President James Buchanan sent U.S. forces to the Utah Territory in what became known as the Utah Expedition. On 21 November, Cumming sent a proclamation to the citizens of Utah declaring them to be in rebellion, and soon after, a grand jury was formed at Camp Scott, which indicted two Mormon prisoners, Brigham Young, and over 60 other members of the Mormon hierarchy for treason. Use every exertion to stampede their animals and set fire to their trains. Field crops had been ignored for most of the two-month-long planting season and livestock herds had been culled for the journey. CAPT. The Mormons tried to suggest that the Indians had killed all of the emigrants but were not believed, the US sent more troops to Utah and thousands of Mormons fled. A LITTLE CHASING, A LITTLE SHOOTING, NO HITTING . Zion’s Camp is launched to help rescue the persecuted Mormons in Missouri who are being mobbed and attacked. U ntil three years ago, Aubert L’Espérance had no idea who Mormons were or what they believed. Yet with the start of the Civil War, Republican majorities were able to pass legislation meant to curb the Mormon practice of polygamy such as the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act of 1862. Their markers at the Camp Floyd cemetery are really just memorials. This report states that the temple’s foundation was covered as the U.S. Army approached Salt Lake in the summer of 1857. Then the Confederate leader postponed his attack until … 28 August 1857: Col. Johnston is ordered to replace Gen. Harney as commander of the U.S. troops.  Upon approval of his mission by the President, Kane immediately started for Utah. Meanwhile back east, support for this "Utah Expedition" was waning. Only days before spring thaw and resupply would permit Johnston’s Army to move west, Buchanan’s ‘Peace Commission’ arrived in the territory bearing a pardon for the Mormon people. Giles came to Utah to fight the Mormons, but ended up as a lifelong convert who settled in Millard County and won praise for his untiring service to others. Van Vliet had been previously known by the Latter-day Saints in Iowa, and they trusted and respected him. It is captioned: "Triumphal Passage of United States Troops through SaltLake City." Relations between the troops and their commanders with the Mormons were often tense. He therefore granted Kane unofficial permission to attempt mediation, although he held little hope for the success of negotiations. Although the migrants brought opportunities for trade, they also ended the Mormons' short-lived isolation. Why did mobs attack Joseph Smiths hours and why were Mormons shot in the street? There, Van Vliet reported on the situation in the west and became an advocate for the Latter-day Saints and the end of the Utah War. Instead, he settled his troops into ill-equipped winter camps designated Camp Scott and Eckelsville, near the burned-out remains of Fort Bridger, now in the state of Wyoming. A … In early August, Young re-activated the Nauvoo Legion. He quickly recognized that supplies or accommodations for the Army would not be forthcoming.  On his journey, reports reached Van Vliet that his company might be in danger from Mormon raiders on the trail. Young disagreed with Buchanan's choices for governor of the territory. were proven false, the stories about Utah especially concerning polygamy would not go away. Then, as the army threat disappeared, the foundation was uncovered as temple work was ready to resume. I guess that makes sense, mormons do know most about mormonism :) I don't really understand why America is worried about mormons. . 2 Comments, posted by Curtis @ 1:03 PM The Mormons were pleased by the appointment, but gradually the amicable relationship between Mormons and the federal government broke down. In addition to popular election, many early LDS Church leaders received quasi-political administrative appointments at both the territorial and federal level that coincided with their ecclesiastical roles, including the powerful probate judges. There were some casualties, mostly non-Mormon civilians. [a] These factors contributed to the popular belief that Mormons "were oppressed by a religious tyranny and kept in submission only by some terroristic arm of the Church ... [However] no Danite band could have restrained the flight of freedom-loving men from a Territory possessed of many exits; yet a flood of emigrants poured into Utah each year, with only a trickle ... ebbing back.". At the height of the tensions, on September 11, 1857, between 95 and 120 California-bound settlers from Arkansas, Missouri and other states, including unarmed men, women and children, were killed in remote southwestern Utah by a group of local Mormon militia. Young announced the approach of the army to a large group of Latter-day Saints gathered in Big Cottonwood Canyon for Pioneer Day celebrations on 24 July.. Because preachers denounced Mormons as blasphemous and newspapers accused Joseph Smith as being a fraudster. Young also sent George A. Smith to the settlements of southern Utah to prepare them for action. Brigham Young echoed the opinion of many Latter-day Saints when he declared "I love the government and the Constitution of the United States, but I do not love the damned rascals that administer the government. Historians have used the fact that Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston and several of his officers, with many enlisted men, joined the Confederacy in 1861 as proof that the army was sent to Utah as part of a southern plot to grab the West for the Confederacy. ", The Mormons also maintained a governmental and legal regime in "Zion", which they believed was perfectly permissible under the Constitution, but which was fundamentally different from that espoused in the rest of the country.. When the army finally abandoned Camp Floyd in 1861 at the outbreak of the American Civil War, surplus goods worth an estimated four million dollars were auctioned off for a fraction of their value. Upon returning to the main body of the army, Van Vliet reported that the Latter-day Saints would not resort to actual hostilities, but would seek to delay the troops in every way possible. I am satisfied that the Executive has not had the information he ought to have had on this subject before making such a movement as he has directed to be made. Dealing with a heavy snowfall and intense cold, the Mormon men built fortifications, dug rifle pits and dammed streams and rivers in preparation for a possible battle either that fall or the following spring. For nearly two hundred miles his right flank would be exposed to Federal attack. President Millard Fillmore selected Brigham Young, President of the LDS Church, as the first governor of the Territory. The settlers made money from the Army. 7-11 September 1857: An emigrant wagon train of non-Mormons is attacked at. In October 1857, Mormons arrested six Californians traveling through Utah and charged them with being spies for the U.S. Army. It is uncertain if Kane was able to convince Young at this time to allow the army into Utah.  When gold was discovered in California in 1848 at Sutter's Mill, which sparked the famous California Gold Rush, thousands of migrants began moving west on trails that passed directly through territory settled by Mormon pioneers. I have dreams of the future, I know it sounds crazy but I do. The Captain therefore left his escort and proceeded alone.. They boxed and carried with them twenty thousand bushels of tithing grain, as well as machinery, equipment, and all the Church records and books. 2 Comments, posted by Curtis @ 8:10 AM At Young’s request, Kane petitioned Buchanan, asking to mediate the conflict. Armed conflict in the Utah Territory between 1857–1858, Polygamy, popular sovereignty, and slavery, December 1857 – March 1858: winter intermission, Utah War: U.S. Government Versus Mormon Settlers, Donna G. Ramos, Historynet LLC, [Magazine] Editor, 1919 Gallows Road, Ste 400 Their primary concern was to be governed by men of their own choosing rather than "unsympathetic carpetbag appointees", whom they believed would be sent from Washington, D.C. if their region were given territorial status, as was customary. As soon as future Church President returned from his mission to Hawaii, he joined the Nauvoo Legion and was sent up to Echo Canyon to help keep watch over the army’s Camp Scott bivouac. He says he often feels like an outsider at church. , This account was further supported by Territorial Chief Justice Kinney in reports to Washington, where he recited examples of what he believed to be Brigham Young's perversion of Utah's judicial system and further urged his removal from office and the establishment of a one-regiment U.S. Army garrison in the territory. Buchanan, fearing his over . Anyways a few days ago I asked this question on another account about my dreams, and today I was visited by Mormons. I am rear guard of our own regiment. A number of Mormon settlements in Idaho, Nevada and California would not be resettled for decades and some were permanently abandoned. He obtained an escort of soldiers commanded by Lt. James A. However, in early March Kane traveled to Johnston's winter base at Fort Bridger. Buchanan, fearing his over-extended, ill-conceived expedition might lose to the Mormons, agreed. He points out that this was close to the number of people killed during the seven-year contemporaneous struggle in "Bleeding Kansas"..  There were further charges of treason, battery, theft, and fraud made by other officials including Federal Surveyors and Federal Indian Agents. Under massive popular and political pressure, President Buchanan decided to take decisive action against the Mormons soon after his inauguration on 4 March 1857. A group of Master Mason's petitioned the Grand Lodge of Nevada for a dispensation to This entry was posted in Histories and tagged Brigham Young, Colonia Juarez, Hannah Topham, Hyrum Smith, Johnston's Army, Joseph Smith, Lorenzo Snow, Mormon Colonies in Mexico, Utah War, William C. McClellan, William Rufus Rogers Stowell on August 17, 2017 by Ryan. He says he often feels like an outsider at church. This included permitting Johnston's Army into the Territory. We found the city evacuated, all had gone to Provo except a few men left to burn the city if ordered. 12 April 1858: Governor Cummings arrives in Utah, and is installed in office. The position was offered to several individuals who refused, and the President finally settled on Alfred Cumming during the summer. Kane left Utah Territory for Washington, D.C. in May to report to President Buchanan on the results of his mission. What are Utah’s three regions and where are they? Slavery was an issue. All LDS missionaries serving in the United States and Europe were recalled. This was the Mormon militia created during the conflict in Illinois. That winter the Army established the temporary Camp Scott a mile or two to the south of the burnt fort, and in the spring of 1858, tension between the Mormons and the U.S. military subsided. When travelers told him in the summer of 1857 that the army was approaching, he worried old enemies had convinced the federal government to renew persecution of Mormons. , Taking all incidents into account, MacKinnon estimates that approximately 150 people died as a direct result of the year-long Utah War, including the 120 migrants killed at Mountain Meadows. This remote location, neighbor only to a few farms and ranches, was chosen to decrease friction between the troops and the Mormons. Associated horses and cattle were "liberated" from the supply trains and taken west by the militia. Historian Norman Furniss writes that although some of these appointees were basically honest and well-meaning, many were highly prejudiced against the Mormons even before they arrived in the territory and woefully unqualified for their positions, while a few were down-right reprobates. , The Aiken massacre took place the following month. incurring the expense of sending troops without investigating the reports on Utah's disloyalty to the United States, dispatching the expedition late in the season, and. Although the Utah Expedition had begun to gather as early as May under orders from General Winfield Scott, the first soldiers did not leave Fort Leavenworth, Kansas until 18 July 1857. In fact, Johnston’s army needed foodstuffs for the soldiers and feed for their horses, providing an economic windfall for the new settlers. CAPTAIN JESSE GOVE, 10TH INFANTRY, letter to his wife: "26th (June). In 1849, the Mormons proposed that a large part of the territory which they inhabited be incorporated into the United States as the State of Deseret. The U.S. Congress created the Utah Territory as part of the Compromise of 1850. They also hinted that once the new governor was installed and the laws yielded to, "a necessity will no longer exist to retain any portion of the army in the Territory, except what may be required to keep the Indians in check and to secure the passage of emigrants to California. Smith's own flights of imagination about religion doctrine were such that a lot of Mormons were doing that. , Hamblin's group made direct contact with Ives expedition by sending Thaïes Haskell, to hail the steamer's crew from the bank while the other Mormons remained in hiding. Despite Thomas Kane's successful mission, tension continued throughout the spring and summer of 1858. A Gentile Governor … April 1857: The press in the Eastern U.S. begins to speculate on who would be appointed to replace Brigham Young. The illustration above is of the troops marching through the streets of Salt Lake City, probably in front of Brigham Young's home. The Mormons manufactured or repaired firearms, turned scythes into bayonets, and burnished and sharpened long-unused sabres. For the next several years, the Federal Government, distracted by the Civil War, largely left the Mormons alone and the Mormon Church was able to continue its growth and missionary work. "Many became some of the most important generals of the Civil War."  In addition, through October and November, between 1,200 and 2,000 militiamen were stationed in Echo Canyon and Weber Canyon. , On 1 April, Senator Simon Cameron of Pennsylvania declared that he would support a bill to authorize volunteers to fight in Utah and other parts of the frontier only because, ... this war is a war of the Administration; and I desire that the responsibility of it shall be on the Administration. failing to officially notify Governor Young about his replacement. Many felt that these sensationalized beliefs, along with early communitarian practices of the United Order, also violated the principles of republicanism as well as the philosophy of laissez-faire economics. He was to pass himself off as a renegade from Utah and then learn as much as possible about Ives's intentions; however, his guise failed since one of Ives's men who had been to Utah claimed to recognize him as a Mormon bishop. Brigham’s palace is a magnificent structure. Here's where I disagree with your above working notes: I don't agree with the number "800" — people in the past often exaggerated numbers. They were ordered not to take offensive action against the Mormons, but to enter the territory, enforce the laws under the direction of the new governor, and defend themselves if attacked. 0 Comments, posted by Curtis @ 9:42 AM This event was later called the Mountain Meadows Massacre and the motives behind the incident remain unclear. Smith's own flights of imagination about religion doctrine were such that a lot of Mormons were doing that.  Nevertheless, Van Vliet told Young that he believed that the Mormons "have been lied about the worst of any people I ever saw". It was so full of lies, and showed so much meanness, that it elicited three groans from the company. Not until late in the afternoon of April 5 did Johnston’s army complete the 22-mile march to its attack point. Most scholars believe that following the end of the Mormon War in the winter of 1838, the unit was partially disbanded. War was avoided as the army realized there was no rebellion. The Utah War (1857–1858), also known as the Utah Expedition, Utah Campaign, Buchanan's Blunder, the Mormon War, or the Mormon Rebellion was an armed confrontation between Mormon settlers in the Utah Territory and the armed forces of the United States government.The confrontation lasted from May 1857 to July 1858. Van Vliet arrived in Salt Lake City on 8 September. While rumors spread during the spring that an army was coming to Utah and that Brigham Young had been replaced as governor, this was not confirmed until late July. Great Basin, because it has most of the state’s water How were Utah’s Mormon Elias Blackburn recorded in his journal, The roads are crowded with the Saints moving south. These stories led many Americans to believe that Mormon leaders were petty tyrants and that Mormons were determined to create a Zionist, polygamous kingdom in the newly acquired territories. In analogy to the federal procedure, these executive and judicial appointments were confirmed by the Territorial Legislature, which largely consisted of popularly elected Latter-day Saints. On August 29, Brigham Young instructed Daniel H. Wells to draft a second proclamation of martial law. Over 300 men, women, and children were killed by the , Other incidents of violence have also been linked to the Utah War, including an Indian attack on the Mormon mission of Fort Lemhi in eastern Oregon Territory, modern day Idaho. William P. McKinnon, Causes of the Utah War, Fort Douglas Vedette (2007). In 1869, the Transcontinental Railroad was completed, and soon large numbers of "Gentiles" arrived in Utah to stay. As a result, Johnston's army spent a miserable winter with little shelter and food. 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